A rising tide of nationalism in India is driving ordinary citizens to spread fake news, according to BBC research.
The research found that facts were less important to some than the emotional desire to bolster national identity.
Social media analysis suggested that right-wing networks are much more organised than on the left, pushing nationalistic fake stories further.
There was also an overlap of fake news sources on Twitter and support networks of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
The findings come from extensive research in India, Kenya, and Nigeria into the way ordinary citizens engage with and spread fake news.
Participants gave the BBC extensive access to their phones over a seven-day period, allowing the researchers to examine the kinds of material they shared, whom they shared it with and how often.
The research, commissioned by the BBC World Service and published today, forms part of “Beyond Fake News” – a series across TV, radio and digital that aims to investigate how disinformation and fake news are affecting people around the world.